In children, compared with adults, fever (hyperthermia) is observed more often. This is due to underdevelopment. center of thermoregulation in babies.
The most common causes of increased body temperature in children:
Normal body temperature, measured in axillary areas in a child older than one year old or in the femoral crease in babies under one year old, ranges from 36 to 37 degrees, but on average - 36.60. The temperature in the mouth and in the rectum (anal temperature) - by 1 degree higher.
Increased body temperature in the armpit from 37 to 38 degrees are called subfebrile, from 38 to 39 degrees - febrile, from 39 to 40.5 - pyretic (from the Greek. Pyretos - fever), and above 40.5 - hyperpyretic.
The main periods of hyperthermia:
gradual increase in temperature (initial period). Often accompanied chills, headache, deterioration of the general condition.In children of the first year life often vomiting precedes fever;
period of maximum increase. There is a further deterioration in the overall states: there is a feeling of heaviness in the head, a feeling of heat, severe weakness, aches all over. Often there is arousal, convulsions are possible. Sometimes delusions and hallucinations appear. During this period, you can not leave a child alone in bed without the supervision of any family member, since children may fall out of bed or hit;
period of decreasing body temperature. The process can proceed critically (crisis) or lytic (lysis). Rapid drop in body temperature, for example from 40 to 36 degrees is called critical. A gradual decline - lytic. With a critical decrease, there is a sharp decrease in vascular tone and arterial pressure. Pulse becomes weak, filiform. The child develops strong weakness, profuse sweating, hands and feet cold to the touch. With a gradual (lytic) decrease in temperature, a small perspiration appears. and moderate weakness. As a rule, the child quietly falls asleep.
On what period of the process in a child depend and medical procedures that can be done at home before the baby examines the doctor and the use of antipyretic drugs.
Help in the initial period of temperature increase:
Help in the period of maximum temperature increase:
continue to give plenty of water to your baby: give liquid in the form of fruit juices, mors, mineral water, infusions of herbs. When body temperature rises above 37 degrees for each degree requires an additional 10 ml of fluid to 1 kg of body weight (approximately 20-30% more than normal volume). For example, a child of 8 months with a body weight of 8 kg at a temperature of 39 degrees is necessary in addition to the volume of the daily ration of 160 ml of liquid;
Do not insist on eating in the absence of appetite. Baby food at high temperature should be gentle with the restriction of animal proteins (meat, milk). It is better to feed the baby more often and in small portions;
if dry mouth and lip cracks appear, they should be lubricated. a weak solution of soda (1 teaspoon per cup of warm boiled water), vaseline oil or other fat;
with a severe headache they use cold on the head - they put a bubble with ice, but necessarily through a diaper or flaxseed folded in 3-4 layers towel. At home, you can use filled with water and frozen heating pads or small plastic bottles. Today in pharmacies, you can purchase special bags of gel (most often this inert the gel has a blue color), which after cooling in the refrigerator use on any area of the body. The use of such gel packs is very convenient, so how they take the shape of that part of the body, which is superimposed and can be reused;
cold compresses with cold water, but it is necessary to moisten them again and change as heating (approximately every 2-4 minutes). It is better to use alternately two napkins. Until one is placed on an elevated temperature zone, the second is cooled in cold water. Acetic water can be used for compresses (1 tablespoon per liter of water) .;
in the armpits and femoral folds, pressing a little legs to the stomach, put small bottles with ice (10-20 ml), wrapped with a gauze napkin;
when the temperature rises above 38 degrees, the child should be opened, can blow it with a fan;
apply rubbing the skin with alcohol or vinegar solution.
How to wipe the child to reduce the temperature:
prepare a small capacity of 200-300 ml;
poured there 50 grams of alcohol or vodka;
add the same volume of water;
moisten a gauze napkin or a piece of fabric measuring 20x20 or 30x30 cm;
squeeze the napkin;
wetted wipes wipe the skin of the child (chest, abdomen, back, thighs), especially carefully rubbing the palms, soles, the inner surface of the hands and legs. In young children, the skin is very delicate, so rubdown should be conduct so as not to injure the skin. Alcohol solution quickly evaporates from the surface of the body and due to this increases the heat transfer and there is a decrease in temperature. For acetic rubdowns on one liter of cold water add one tablespoon of vinegar (but not vinegar essence). Can Use apple cider vinegar in the same proportion. Rubbing can be repeated every 1.5-2 hours. If the child is sweating, you must change your underwear each time.
after wiping the child dressed in regular pajamas;
put the baby in bed. Do not wrap children very warmly, so how is it possible to re-raise the temperature.
Recently, questions about the feasibility of use of acetic compresses and acetic rubdowns in case of hyperthermia. Some The authors believe that the external use of acidic or alcoholic solutions enhances intoxication. However, during my many years of practice I have not had to face with aggravation of the child's condition when using two or three acetic or alcohol rubbing during the day. Repeated persistent fever after physical cooling requires the use of drugs.
In the event that the child is difficult to endure fever or he had previous convulsions against this background (so-called febrile convulsions), you should start lowering the temperature already at 37.5-37.8about, without waiting lifting up to 38 degrees.
Help with fast criticalreducing elevated temperature:
With a gradual lytic decrease in temperatureenough make sure that the baby is not woken up at this moment, because during sleep it restores his strength and control whether his clothes are dry and bedding.
How to make full wraps to reduce heat bodies:
dial in a container of at least 1 liter of cold tap water or pour infusion of herbs (chamomile, yarrow, St. John's wort);
cotton sheet or cloth moistened in the prepared solution;
quickly wrap around the body of the child so that the pens remain free, and the legs were wrapped on all sides except the feet;
wrap the child in a sheet or thin blanket, then in a more dense a blanket or blanket, but face and feet are free;
they wear socks soaked with cold water on their feet, and woolen ones on top. socks;
leave the child in such a common cold compress for 45-60 minutes;
if it is noticeable that the child is freezing, then it should be covered additionally something warm or put a warm heating pad at your feet;
during wrapping give children a warm drink. The stronger the separation will be, the faster the body temperature decreases;
prepare a bath with warm water for the expiration of the procedure time;
unroll the child;
quickly redeem it;
blot with a towel;
put to bed;
after 15-30 minutes, put on clean linen. You can rinse instead bath baby under the shower. If the child falls asleep during the procedure, then he should not wake until he wakes up by himself.
Cold wrapping babies should do this:
put a terry towel across the crib or changing table or a blanket;
moisten in cold water a folded diaper;
put a wet diaper on top of a towel or blanket;
naked baby lay back on a wet diaper;
lifting it in a diaper;
wrap the loose ends of a wet diaper around the baby’s chest;
wet and squeeze the second diaper;
attach a second diaper to the baby's chest;
then wrap the baby in a dry towel, blanket or blanket;
in 30-45 minutes to unwrap the child;
wipe dry with a towel and put on dry laundry.
Hold cold wraps once a day. They can be alternated with rubdowns - acetic or alcohol.It should be remembered that cold wraps use only when the body temperature rises above 38 degrees.Subfebrile temperature (37-37.5) requires the use of hot wraps.
Another method of non-drug reduction of body temperature - these are enemas. This procedure allows you to free the body from toxins that by themselves can cause fever. But for such antipyretic enemas should be used hypertonic 5-10% saline: 1 table a spoonful of salt for one glass of water. Use slightly warm water. Enema bottle (pear) should be with a soft tip. The amount of enema for children, depending from the age of such: at the age of 6 months - 30-50 ml, from 6 months to 1.5 years - 70-100 ml, from 1.5 to 5 years - 180-200 ml, 6 - 12 years - 200-400 ml, over 12 years - 500-700 ml.Chamomile tea can be used (3 tablespoons of flowers into a glass of water, boil in a water bath for 15 minutes or brew in a thermos) as basis for hypertonic enema.
How to put an enema to a child:
Before use, the pear for enema should be boiled for 2-5 minutes;
after cooling the pear, it is filled with the prepared solution;
remove excess air by gently squeezing the balloon until liquid appears from the facing upward tip;
tip lubricated with petroleum jelly;
an infant is laid on his back with his legs raised, and older children on the side with legs tucked up to the belly;
the tip of the balloon is injected into the anus very carefully, so as not to injure the rectal mucosa, without effort, to the depth 3-5 cm to younger children, 6-8 cm - older;
gradually squeeze the pear and squeeze the fluid into the rectum;
after emptying the container, without unclamping it, carefully withdraw the tip
To keep the injected fluid in the intestines should hand squeeze the child's buttocks for a few minutes. After this there is an emptying intestine.Currently, one-time sterile plastic can be purchased from pharmacies cylinders with tips and ready-made solutions for cleansing enemas of various volume, including for very young children.
In inflammatory bowel disease with the threat of education ulcers, erosion or cracks in the rectum or large intestine, staging enemas at home without consulting a doctor is contraindicated.
Thus, at home or on vacation, in the country should use non-drug methods to reduce high body temperature before treatment see a doctor to prevent complications associated with hyperthermia. As they accumulate own experience parents begin to navigate what procedures child makes it easier and which ones are the most effective. It is these methods that are necessary. apply further in repeated episodes of pronounced fever body.