“Soon, very soon, my six-year-old will learn, finally, to determine the time by the clock with the hands ...” - Mommy is waiting anxiously waiting. However, time goes on, and the child’s confusion continues ... Experts reassure: no wonder, because the fact that most first-graders cannot determine by time with the clock and the arrow, not a lack of a specific child, but a medical fact!
The thing is that for a child’s mind it is a huge burden - to connect in consciousness two, superimposed on each other dial, hour and minute. What to do? Teach. Only in a special way - in small steps!
First step
Make a model of a watch without a ... minute hand - forget about dividing the dial by minutes! Minute dash, too, do not apply. Explain to the child that the hand that shows the clock is called the “watch”.
As a result, there will be 12 digits and a “rough” section of time. For example: a little more than two, half a second, about two, a little more than two. There is plenty of such a “big” crushing of the kid, and you can start learning from 4-4.5 years.Let it take several months, or a year - you should not hurry with a smaller crushing.
Second step
First show the baby how the arrow walks properly, and then let the child twist it in the right direction. Tell us that in an hour the hour hand passes the distance from one digit to another. Then set one or another time (exactly) on the dial and let the baby show the position of an hour hand in an hour (two, three, etc.). Then go back to the past: an hour (two, three, etc.) back.
When the child is already easy to call and set the time on the dial in such a simplified version, add the minute hand to the dial. Explain to your child that people thought up the minutes and the minute hand in order to navigate inside each hour and that in one hour the minute hand passes a whole circle.
Againspecify which hand shows the hour, and which minute.Againsay that they are called "hour" and "minute".
Explain that when the hour hand shows exactly one hour (two, three, and so on), the minute one always appears at the very top, at “12”. Let the child place her in this position and twist the hour hand in a circle:
a) alternately putting on "flat" hours;
b) depicting real time - looking at the real clock;
c) focusing on previously prepared drawings;
d) arbitrarily at your request.
Third step
Ask your child where, in his opinion, there will be a minute hand, if half an hour does not pass. If the child did not guess, help him. Draw on the clock layout how half of an hour “looks”. When the child can already carry out this task independently, enter the concepts “in one and a half (two, two and a half, etc.) hours”. Then start to comprehend "half an hour ago", "an hour and a half ago", etc.
The consolidation of knowledge.Draw on the dial, for example, 2 hours exactly and ask the baby:
And then let the child himself depicts the time you set on the dial.
Fourth step
Now you can start learning minutes in detail. Write about the numbers representing the number of hours, numbers (smaller), representing the number of minutes. Explain that in each hour there are 60 minutes and from one “hourly” division to another - 5 minutes.Show the future or newly-made schoolchildren how to use the arrows for 5, 10, 15, etc., minutes of one hour or another. Then put the arrows in a certain position and let the child move them to the position
which will be through:
Fifth step
Introduce the child to the concept of "a quarter of an hour." Explain that each division (from one digit to another) is also divided into small divisions - one minute each. Show your child how 7, 9, 11 minutes of an hour or 21, 26, 34 minutes will look, for example. Come up with exercises to consolidate new knowledge, similar to those described above.
Tell your child that if the minute hand has not reached the half-hour mark, it’s customary to say: “so many minutes of such-and-such (following the number that the hour hand has just passed) hour”. For example, “eight hours, twelve minutes” is the same as “twelve minutes past eight”.Practice it. Next, tell the baby what to say if the minute hand crossed the half-hour mark. Practice practicing time again in two ways. When giving your child the task of setting the time on the dial, each time speak it in a different way.
Sixth step
Throughout the course of training, pay attention to the baby at the time shown on the real clock! Ask him to say what time it is (based on the knowledge obtained at the moment) to depict the same time on the class hours.
Make up your daily routine with your first-grader. And where you will write the time at which an event occurs, draw a dial with the image of this particular time.