> >Lava flows from Kilauea volcano in Hawaii
Kilauea in Hawaii (translated from Hawaiian - "belching") - one of the most active volcanoes on Earth. It has erupted continuously since 1983.
This lava flow, called “61g”, began its journey from 2 to 15 meters per hour from Kilauea volcano in May, at the end of July it reached the water. Let us trace the entire path of lava from Kilauea volcano in Hawaii, and at the same time we will see if it is possible to stop such a stream.
In my 2016, the increased pressure in the cone of Kilauea reached a critical point, and the magma burst out.
Lava flow destroys scrub and trees on its way, Hawaii, June 28, 2016.
Sample collection of lava for chemical analysis.
Sometimes the speed of a lava flow can reach several meters per second. But it is not in our case. The temperature of the lava ranges from 500 to 1200 ° C.
The lava warmed to 1,000 degrees Celsius moves in an unpredictable direction, destroying everything around. Attempts to stop or redirect it are largely dependent on the terrain, available resources and luck. Can I stop her?
Lava Tube, June 30, 2016.Lava tubes are channels that are obtained by uneven cooling of lava flowing from the slopes of a volcano.
But we digress. So, the idea of stopping lava 1: bomb.
In 1935, as the lava came closer to the Hawaiian city of Hilo, the director of the Hawaiian Volcanic Observatory, Thomas Jaggar, suggested bombing the lava tubes. The fact is that they help the hot volcanic mass to flow faster and farther due to the walls covered with frozen lava. But the craters left over from the bombings soon filled up again with lava. The city survived thanks to the fact that the volcano stopped the eruption.
Idea 2: pour water.
In 1973, on the Icelandic island of Heimaei, for several months, lava flows that threatened the city of Vestmannaeyar were poured out of the water jets with sea water. Falling on the hot magma, it evaporated, helping it to harden. The fifth part of the city was destroyed before more powerful water cannons were brought there. Soon the lava was stopped, and the bay was saved. A total of 6.8 billion liters of water was used for this operation. But it’s not always possible to stop lava with water: in this particular situation, lava flowed slowly,and the amount of cooling water was almost unlimited.
By the way, this is a lava lake in the crater, July 27, 2016.
Idea 3: build a barrier.
In 1983, another eruption of Etna took place on the east coast of Sicily, and it threatened to destroy three cities. Barriers of stones and ashes were urgently erected. As a result, the lava overcame one of the first barriers, 18 meters high and 10 meters wide, but the second barrier still managed to stop it.
Lava flow on the southern slope of Kilauea volcano, July 25, 2016.
Idea 4: artificial channels.
10 years later, Etna again began an eruption, this time threatening the city of Zafferana. The Italian authorities, taking into account the previous experience, exploded part of the lava by explosions, sending it into artificial channels. The rest of the stream was diverted by concrete blocks.
The place where the lava flow, about 250 m wide, enters the ocean, August 5, 2016.
In general, the country needs to have sufficient financial capabilities to stop the lava. It is believed that you can only postpone the inevitable, if the volcano itself does not stop.