Pediculosis- parasitism on human skin lice.
There are three types of lice that cause head lice in humans - head, pubic and body lice.
Head lice are grayish-white insects, 2-4 mm in size. As a rule, they live on the scalp, but can also affect eyebrows and eyelashes.
Pubic lice are parasitic on the hairy part of the pubis, scrotum, upper thighs (phthyriosis). In advanced cases, it can spread to the armpit, back, chest, beard, mustache, eyelashes and eyebrows. Lice tightly attached to the base of the hair. Infection occurs predominantly during sexual intercourse, less often through bed linen and other common items, possibly in the bath. On the site of bites of pubic lice, grayish-blue spots of up to 10 mm are formed, which do not disappear under pressure; after 1-2 weeks they disappear without a trace. Disturbed by severe itching of the skin.
Body lice resemble head, but slightly larger than their size (2-5 mm). These lice can live on the human body, in the folds of clothing and bedding.When infected with lice most often affects the skin in contact with the folds and seams of clothing.
Biting body lice cause severe itching of the skin and the appearance of urticar rash, linear excoriation (mainly in the lumbar region, in the armpits, on the neck). Often in the area of scratching joins secondary pococcal infection. Gradually, the skin at the site of scratching becomes lichened, acquires a dirty grayish-brown color.
When head lice are found, they are combed out with a frequent comb, being careful not to disperse the parasites. Men and children should be cut (hair burn). If the hair is not clipped, one of the following insecticides is applied to them: 10% aqueous soap-kerosene emulsion, which is prepared from concentrate soap-kerosene emulsion (consists of 50% laundry soap and 50% kerosene), adding to 100 ml of concentrate up to 1 l warm water; 5% boric ointment (used for adults only); 20% water-soap suspension of benzyl benzoate. The rate of consumption of drugs depends on the thickness and length of the hair, the degree of infection with lice. The treatment of hair usually requires 5-10 ml of a soap-kerosene emulsion or 10-30 ml of a water-soap suspension of benzyl benzoate; 5-25 g of boric ointment.The preparations are applied to the hair, tied with a dense kerchief for 20-30 minutes, and then washed with warm water and soap (shampoo), rinsed with 5-10% solution of acetic acid or diluted in half with water and vinegar and combed with a frequent comb. For pediculosis, opofos can be used (1 tablet is dissolved in 50 ml of water; hair is moistened with a sponge with the resulting solution, held for 10 minutes, then the hair is washed in the usual way).
In case of ward pediculosis, sanitary treatment is carried out (they wash the body with hot water and soap) and at the same time the disinsection of linen, outerwear, bedding and residential premises. Disinsection of linen, outerwear and bedding is carried out in disinsection chambers, and in the absence of them - insecticides. The latter are applied to the surface of things (bedding, outerwear) using hand-sprayers or sprays or soaked in an emulsion (underwear and bed linen). Use 0.15% aqueous emulsion of karbofos, for the preparation of which to 3 g of 50% or 5 g of 30% emulsifiable concentrate of karbofos add 1 liter of warm water; 0.06% aqueous sulfidophos emulsion,for the preparation of which to 1.2 g of 50% emulsifiable sulfidophos concentrate is added 1 liter of warm water; 20% aqueous soap-kerosene emulsion; 5% methyl acetate or pyrethrum powder. For soaking one set of underwear consumed 2.5 liters of emulsion, one set of bed linen - 4-4.5 liters (exposure when using an aqueous emulsion for 20-30 minutes, sulfidophos - 5-10 minutes), for irrigating one set of outer clothing - 350 ml, bedding - 400 ml. Processed things can be used after drying and airing. When processing powders on one set of underwear consumes 25 g of methyl acetate dust, 30-55 g of pyrethrum; for one set of bedding - 40 g of methyl acetophos powder, 60 g of pyrethrum; on one set of outerwear - 40 g of methyl Acetate phosphate, 105 g of pyrethrum. After that, things are bagged; After 2-3 hours, dust is shaken off or removed with a vacuum cleaner, and things are aerated until the smell of the preparation disappears.
For pubic lice (phthyroidism), pubic and axillary hair is shaved off, rubbed into the affected skin 10% white mercury ointment, 5% boric ointment, Nittifor lotion (Hungary) or loncid.