> >Scientific advances and technologies of past centuries
Thousands of years ago, people still sought to know the world around them. They invented a variety of tools that allowed to carry out certain measurements and calculations. Each of these devices was a step towards modern scientific achievements and the development of new technologies. The most amazing thing is that many of these tools can be seen today.
The ancient observatory in Beijing has become a museum of astronomy. / Photo: www.wikimedia.org
Ancient observatories, built around the world to observe the celestial bodies, have reached our days in varying degrees of preservation.
In Beijing, on the site of the old observatory today there is a museum in which you can see various instruments and tools that have helped astronomers for many centuries. They are installed on top of a historic building that houses, in addition to the museum, a modern planetarium.
Museum of Ugulbek Observatory. / Photo: www.discoveruz.ru
The Ugulbek Observatory in Uzbekistan was once a symbol of devotion to the science of the Samarkand prince, who built this iconic building for his time. It was here that in 1437 the medieval star catalog was compiled, the duration of the year was determined. Twenty years after the death of Ulugbek, science fell into disrepair, scientists left the observatory, in the beginning of the 16th century it was destroyed. A part of a huge sextant has come down to our day, with the help of which the heights of celestial bodies were measured. Today, near the place where the observatory was located, a museum has been opened. Numerous materials on astronomy of the Middle Ages are collected here and the layout of the Ulugbek Observatory is recreated.
Chhomsonda Observatory. / Photo: www.koreapost.com.br
Chhomzonde in South Korea is an observatory, during the construction of which 27 rows of bricks were laid and each of them had its own meaning. In this observatory, a special meaning was attached to numbers, and the results of research by astronomers (and astrologers) reported directly to the royal court.
El Caracol. / Photo: www.jborder.ru
El Caracol in Chichen Itza and today is a monument of architectural craftsmanship and scientific knowledge of the ancient Maya.This observatory was built to observe Venus, which was considered a sacred planet by the Maya.
Medieval clock in Salisbury Cathedral
Medieval clock in the Salisbury Cathedral. / Photo: www.atlasobscura.com
The oldest in Europe watches that have retained not only their original appearance, but also full performance. The clock did not show the time; they had to call from time to time reminding the local parishioners about the service. They were installed back in 1386, and since then, for over 600 years, the clock has been regularly turning its wheels. In 1956, they were restored and re-launched.
Gavazan in Tatev Monastery
Gavazan in Tatev Monastery. / Photo: www.turbina.ru
A unique pillar was installed in Tatev back in 904. The most precise calculations made it possible to install the octahedral column strictly vertically, providing it with a pivotal hinge, which allowed the column to sway even with a minor earthquake or an approaching enemy force. Today, the pillar is not swinging during an earthquake, but still occupies an honorable place in the monastery.
Samrat Yantra sundial
Sundial Samrat Yantra. / Photo: www.blogspot.com
The world's largest solar stone clock is located in Jaipur, India, at the Jantar Mantar Observatory.Maharaj Sawai Jai Singh, during his reign, built 5 observatories, but the largest was located in Jaipur, the hometown of the Maharaja. The diameter of the largest watch is 27 meters. A slightly smaller copy can be found at the observatory in New Delhi.
Nilomer on the island of Roda. / Photo: www.wikimedia.org
Today in Egypt there are only 20 nilomers preserved - the structures used to measure the level of the Nile. These buildings allowed to predict drought or, conversely, flooding plots. Depending on this, it became clear what crop was worth the wait.
In total, there were three types of nilomers. The first view, to which the nilomer on the island of Roda belongs, was constructed in the form of a tall column immersed in a kind of stone well. Data on this instrument has been preserved since 621 and is considered the longest systematic measurement.
The entrance to the nilometer on the island of Elephantine. / Photo: www.planetofdream.com
Another type, of which the building on Elephantine Island can be considered a model, counted off evenly spaced steps leading to the Nile and had markings on the walls.
Nilometer in the Kom Ombo temple./ Photo: www.atlasobscura.com
The third type can be found today in the temple of Kom Ombo. It was a huge tank through which the waters of the Nile flowed through the canal. Markers were also applied to the walls of the tank.
It should be noted that only priests and rulers had access to the markers and the ability to monitor changes in the state of the Nile.
nittike mechanism. / Photo: www.paranormal-news.ru
This mechanism was raised from the ancient ship in 1901 and soon became the object of close attention from scientists who have not stopped studying today. It turned out that it was used for astronomical measurements and made it possible to calculate the dates of astronomical events.
Antikythera mechanism, allegedly, was created in the interval from 250 to 100 years BC. The place of creation it is called Rhodes and Syracuse, however, this information can not be called absolutely accurate.
This mechanism is called the first analog computer because of its complexity at the time of creation and the possibility of using it to simulate astronomical cycles.