Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis

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Tuberculosis- an infectious disease caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis and characterized by the development of cellular allergies, specific granulomas in various organs and tissues of the polymorphic clinical picture. Damage to the lungs, lymphatic system, bones, joints, urinary organs, skin, eyes, nervous system is characteristic. If untreated, the disease progresses and ends fatally.
The infectious nature of tuberculosis was proved by the German Robert Koch in 1882. It was he who discovered the mycobacterium causing the disease and modestly called it "Koch's wand". Unlike other microbes, Mycobacterium tuberculosis is extremely tenacious: it feels great in the ground and in the snow, resistant to the effects of alcohol, acid and alkali. It can perish only under prolonged exposure to direct sunlight, high temperatures and chlorine-containing substances.
A third of the world's population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Every year, 10 million people become ill with bacillary forms of tuberculosis (presumably the same number — tuberculosis without bacterial excretion). 60% of cases occur in developing countries. 3-4 millionpeople die every year from tuberculosis, which is about 6% of all deaths worldwide.
Tuberculosis is transmitted from person to person by airborne droplets (alimentary, percutaneous and vertical routes of infection are possible, but rare). Every patient with active bacillary tuberculosis is able to infect an average of 10-15 people. Although tuberculosis is not classified as a highly contagious disease, 25-50% are closely and long-term in contact with the bacterial excreta are infected. To become infected with tuberculosis does not mean getting sick. Only 5-15% of those infected become ill, the rest produce unsterile immunity. Patients with tuberculosis of the larynx, bronchi, and destructive forms of pulmonary teburculosis are particularly infectious.
Tuberculosis treatment
Almost all patients with newly diagnosed tuberculosis can be cured, the main thing is to do it right. Treatment must be continuous and must be carried out simultaneously by several anti-tuberculosis drugs. Each of the 4-5 drugs that the patient takes daily for 6 months, affects Koch’s sticks in different ways, and only their joint use can achieve the goal of finally destroying it.
For the qualitative cure of some anti-tuberculosis drugs is not enough. Patients are also prescribed physiotherapy, breathing exercises and drugs that raise the immune system.
Improper treatment turns an easily treatable form of the disease into difficult to treat drug-resistant tuberculosis.
Surgical treatment - removal of part of the lung - is used only in advanced cases of tuberculosis.
If untreated, the death rate from active tuberculosis reaches 50% within one to two years. In the remaining 50% of cases, untreated tuberculosis becomes chronic.

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